Hormona antimulleriana: valores normales y relación con la fertilidad

Anti-Müllerian hormone: normal values ​​and relationship with fertility

Currently, more and more women are delaying motherhood for work, economic or personal reasons. This trend has repercussions in the increasing rates of infertility female . That is why knowing the state of reproductive health, fertility and maternity planning can help couples make decisions thinking about the future that may or may not be distant. One of the tests that can help you have a clearer idea of ​​your fertile status analyzes the levels of the anti-Müllerian hormone . Here we will tell you about its relationship with fertility and its values normal .

Women are increasingly delaying motherhood. (Liza Summer for Pexels)

Anti-Müllerian hormone and ovarian reserve

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is produced in the preantral and antral follicles of the ovaries from puberty to menopause. The values ​​of this hormone are the indicator to know the state of the ovarian reserve and is used to measure female fertility. That is, it indicates the number of available eggs that a woman has at one point in her life. The test consists of a simple blood test that can be performed at any time of the menstrual cycle, unlike other hormones that also assess fertility, without being affected by taking contraceptives or by fasting or not.

The follicles are small sacs located in the ovaries that contain an immature egg, they also have other types of cells that produce estrogen. When an egg matures during the menstrual cycle, the follicle ruptures and the egg is released for possible fertilization. It is important to note that all women are born with a finite number of ovules established that progressively decreases with each menstrual cycle That is, each woman at birth has a number of ovules that she "spends" each month during her menstrual cycle.

Women are born with a limited number of eggs that decreases with each menstruation. (Cottonbro for Pexels)
Anti-Müllerian hormone levels are an indicator of each woman's ovarian reserve. Therefore, they make known the possibility of becoming pregnant at the time of the examination.
 
The number of oocytes in a woman is determined from the first weeks of the embryo, when it is still in its mother's womb . After the first menstruation, the body selects an oocyte each cycle (generally the best quality) so that it grows and can be fertilized. The rest are the remaining primordial follicles or ovarian reserve.
The ovaries are like pomegranates, each seed is a set of follicles that will grow. (Pexels)

Since AMH is produced only in small ovarian follicles, blood levels of this hormone have been used as an indicator of the size of the set of cells. growing follicles in the women. Research shows that the size of the growing pool of follicles is strongly influenced by the size of the remaining primordial pool (microscopic reserve follicles). Therefore, AMH blood levels are thought to reflect the size of the remaining supply of eggs or ovarian reserve.

Over the years, AMH levels in the blood and the number of ovarian antral follicles visible on ultrasound decrease. Women with many small follicles, such as those with polycystic ovaries , have high levels of AMH hormone and women who have few remaining follicles and those who are near menopause have low levels of anti-mullerian hormone.

Anti-Müllerian hormone levels

High: more than 3.0 ng/ml

Normal: 1.0 to 3.0 ng/mL

Low: less than 1.0 ng/mL

Importance of knowing the values ​​of the anti-Müllerian hormone

  • First of all, for know the ovarian reserve of each woman and her chances of getting pregnant. Information is power so know your chances It can help in making future decisions. For example, many women who discover that they have low ovarian reserve choose to freeze their eggs to advance or delay childbearing. Thus, in any case they have the option to choose.
  • also can help diagnose disorders or syndromes (polycystic ovary, premature ovarian failure or early menopause).
  • Studies show that normal or high values ​​of AMH allow to achieve better results when performing IVF with more quantity and better quality of ovules. However, thanks to new advances in personalized protocols, women with low levels can also have moderate rates of success.

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It is an indicator of the here and now

Anti-Müllerian hormone values ​​show ovarian reserve at that moment, but they cannot predict whether a pregnancy will be achieved in the future. A normal result also does not mean that it will remain the same consistently. It also cannot indicate how or when your fertility will decline, as this It happens differently in every woman .

The result of the AMH test does not predict whether a pregnancy will be achieved in the future. (Tima Miroshnichenko for Pexels)

However, the anti-Müllerian hormone is not the only test used to assess fertility in women, it is recommended to other tests such as follicle count antral, the hormones FSH, LH, prolactin and estradiol, as well as additional specific tests that the respective specialist can request.

At what age and who can this test be done?

It is recommended from thirty years or earlier, if you have a history of early menopause. it can be done any woman with a doctor's order.

The value of anti-Müllerian hormone not the only result to determine what options a woman may have to become pregnant. It should also be taken into account that the AMH They are not an indicator of quality. of the ovules nor is it the only value to take into account to predict the success or failure of an assisted reproduction treatment. It is also important to remember that some women with polycystic ovaries may have elevated values ​​and women with premature ovarian failure may have very low values ​​before the age of 35.

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